Some reviews carried out over the past 20 years suggested that regular cannabis use during adolescence may be associated with an increased risk for developing depressive symptoms although the evidence remained somewhat mixed. For example, two longitudinal studies found that adolescent cannabis use was no longer significantly associated with an increased risk for later depression after controlling for several other risk factors, such as IQ, other substance use, family disadvantage, early life stressors and even deviant peers. The often cited studies are, Early onset cannabis use and psychosocial adjustment in young adults, Fergusson & Horwood, 1997 (New Zealand) and Cannabis use and depression: a longitudinal study of a national cohort of Swedish conscripts, ManriqueGarcia et al., 2012 (Sweden). Other contradictory findings have also been reported; one cross-sectional study found that individuals who used cannabis approximately once per week reported less depressed mood, more positive affect and fewer somatic (relating to the body as distinct from the mind) complaints than non-users (Decreased depression in marijuana users, Denson & Earleywine, 2006).
Long-term cannabis users cite relaxation and stress relief as primary reasons for use. However, longitudinal studies often combine depressive and anxiety disorders when investigating mental health outcomes associated with cannabis use e.g., A longitudinal study of cannabis use and mental health from adolescence to early adulthood, McGee, Williams, Poulton, & Moffitt, 2000 (New Zealand), making it difficult to identify the unique relation between cannabis and anxiety symptoms.
Mild anxiety is sometimes a side-effect of initial cannabis use, but more people experience mood-elevating effects, as well as relaxation, which allows anxiety sufferers, in particular, to lead a more normal life. While benefiting from the medicinal effects of cannabis, some patients at the Victorian Cannabis Buyers Club in Canada suffered bouts of anxiety. Most simply took a few sniffs of black pepper to receive almost immediate relief. Others reported chewing on black peppercorns for relief within an hour. Medical cannabis also causes a desirable 'slowing' down of thought processes, which can help to break up some of the upsetting cyclical thought patterns which can plague anxiety sufferers.
Modern medicine relies heavily on pharmaceuticals to treat anxiety, regardless of the negative side effects. Benzodiazepines, the most common class of anti-anxiety medication (Valium, Xanax etc), lowers brain activity to temporarily relieve anxiety but are far too risky for those with less severe anxiety, and when paired with the adverse effects, the demand for safer treatment has become a pressing issue.
- Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naïve social phobia patients (2011)
- Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an anxiolytic drug (2012)
- The anxiolytic effect of cannabidiol on chronically stressed mice depends on hippocampal neurogenesis: involvement of the endocannabinoid system (2013)
- Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: A review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence (2013)
- Antidepressant-Like and Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Cannabidiol: A Chemical Compound of Cannabis Sativa (2014)
- Central anandamide deficiency predicts stress-induced anxiety: behavioral reversal through endocannabinoid augmentation (2014)
A-10, Abusive OG, ACDC, Ace of Spades, Afghan Big Bud, Afghan Kush, Afghan Kush x Black Domina, Afghan Skunk, Afghani, Afghani Bullrider, Afghani Goo, Afghooey
Big Bang (severe sufferers), Blackberry Hashplant, Blackberry Kush, Blueberry, Blue Cheese, Blue Chunk, Blue Cross, Blue Dream, Blue Moon Rocks, Blue Moonshine, Blue Satellite, Bog Sour Bubble, Bubblegum, Burmese Kush, Burmese Pure
C99 x Great White Shark, Casey Jones, Catalyst, Cheese, Cinderella 99, Cindy's Sister, CIT, Chocolope
Fieldale Haze, Firecracker
Girl Scout Cookies
Jack Herer, Juicy Fruit
M-39, Mango x Northern Lights #5, Maui Diesel, Medicine Man (aka White Rhino), MK Ultra, Moonshine, Morning Star, Mr Nice GuyNew York Sour Diesel, Nirvana Northen Lights x Big Bud, Nirvana White Widow, Northern Lights
Oak Goo, OG Berry, Ogre, Orange Cream
Peak 19, Purple God, Purple Kush
Tangerine Dream, Trainwreck
Wakeford, Wonder HazeXJ-13